By Sarah Fiorello

Verbascum thapsus

Introduced to the U.S. from Europe

Enslaved healers made remedies with mullein leaves for treating congestion due to colds as well as other respiratory conditions. Mullein tea was also a popular remedy among enslaved people for treating kidney diseases. Crushed leaves applied as poultices helped to relieve inflammation associated with arthritis and rheumatism.

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Capsicum annuum ‘Fish Pepper’

African Bird’s-eye pepper

Capsicum frutescens ‘African Bird’s Eye’


Citrullus lanatus